Oxidative Stress & Anti-Oxidant Research Tools

oxidative stress

About Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress describes the steady state level of oxidative damage in a cell, tissue, or organ, caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS). This damage can have a widespread effect on an entire organism, or on just a single molecule. It is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. All forms of life maintain a reducing environment within their cells through a constant input of metabolic energy which is preserved by enzymes. Disturbances in this normal redox state can cause toxic effects through the production of cell damaging peroxides and free radicals.

Research on human oxidative stress has led to links to many diseases such as atherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease and it may also be important in ageing. At the same time, reactive oxygen species can also be beneficial, as they are used by the immune system as a way to attack and kill pathogens.

oxidative

Figure (1): ROS mediated activation of cell signaling pathways

Mbioscience Solutions has brought together tools to facilitate your oxidative stress related and anti-oxidant studies.

ROS Brite™: For Reactive Oxygen Species Detection (From AAT Bioquest, USA)

ROS Brite™ reagents are a series new fluorogenic probes to measure oxidative stress in cells. The cell-permeant ROS Brite™ reagents are nonfluorescent and produce bright fluorescence upon ROS oxidation. The resulting fluorescence can be measured using fluorescence imaging, high-content imaging, microplate fluorometry, or flow cytometry. ROS Brite™ 570, 670 and 700 reagents have good selectivity to both hydroxyl radical and supoeroxide. ROS Brite™ 700 is optimized for in vivo imaging.

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Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Intracellular Total ROS Activity Assay Kit (From AAT Bioquest, USA)

Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric ROS Assay Kit uses our unique ROS sensor to quantify ROS in live cells. ROS Green is cell-permeable. It generates the green fluorescence when it reacts with ROS. The kit is an optimized “mix and read” assay format that is compatible with HTS liquid handling instruments. The Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric ROS Assay Kit provides a sensitive, one-step fluorimetric assay to detect intracellular ROS in live cells with one hour incubation.

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Glutathione Reductase StressXpress® Fluorescent Activity Kit (From StressMarq Biosciences, Canada)

When cells are exposed to increased levels of oxidative stress, GSSG will accumulate and the ratio of GSH to GSSG will decrease. The glutathione redutase recycles GSSG to GSH with simultaneous oxidation of b-nicotinamide adenine dinuclecotide phosphate. The monitoring of GSH/GSSG ratio and the quantification of GSSG in biological samples are essential for evaluating the redox and detoxification status of cells and tissues in relation to the protective role of glutathione against oxidative and free-radical-mediated cell injury.

Glutathione Reductase StressXpress® Fluorescent Activity Kit determines the glutathione reductase (GR) activity by the amount of GSH generated from the reduction of GSSG.

GSSG

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SOD StressXpress® Colorimetric Activity Kitt (From StressMarq Biosciences, Canada)

Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide is one of the main reactive oxygen species in cells. It is a substantial contributor of pathology associated with neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and aging. SODs are an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to superoxide radicals.

SOD

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8-OHdG StressXpress® EIA Kit (From StressMarq Biosciences, Canada)

8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine (8-OH-dG) is produced by the oxidative damage of DNA by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and serves as an established marker of oxidative stress. StressMarq’s 8-OH-dG EIA is a competitive assay that can be used for the quantification of 8-OH-dG in urine, cell culture, plasma, and other sample matrices.

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HO-1 StressXpress® ELISA Kits (From StressMarq Biosciences, Canada)

Heme-oxygenase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting steps in heme catabolism yielding equimolar amounts of biliverdin, iron and carbon monoxide. There are three isoforms of heme-oxygenase, HO-1, HO-2 and HO-3; however HO-1 and HO-2 are the major isoforms as they both have been identified in mammals. HO-1 deficiency may cause reduced stress defense, a pro-inflammatory tendency, susceptibility to atherosclerotic lesion formation, endothelial cell injury, and growth retardation. Up-regulation of HO-1 is therefore said to be one of the major defense mechanisms of oxidative stress.

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